There are examples in the Old Testament where anachronisms exist. That is, words and ideas are used that would not have been correct at that point in time and are only relevant much later. Michael Grisanti proposes the Old Testament texts, in particular the Torah, have updated certain text so contemporary readers could understand it better. His paper is Inspiration, Inerrancy, And The OT Canon: The Place Of Textual Updating In An Inerrant View Of Scripture
https://biblicalstudies.org.uk/article_ … santi.html
Some examples he points out:
1. In Gen 14:14, the city of Dan is referred to, which at that time would’ve been known as Laish.
Gen 14:14-318 (ESV)
14 When Abram heard that his kinsman had been taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, 318 of them, and went in pursuit as far as Dan.
“It is customarily identified with Tell el Qadi. This ancient city was known as Laish in the Egyptian execration texts and Mari texts. The city of Dan received its name in the settlement period when the Danite tribe migrated north and conquered the city of Laish (Gen 14:14)/Leshem (Josh 19:47-48). Consequently, it appears that this place did not receive the name of Dan until after the Mosaic period (Judg 18:29).”
Other examples of place names used in Gen 14 that could also be anachronistic.
Gen 14:2 “Bela (Zoar)”
Gen 14:3 “the valley of Siddim (the Salt Sea)”
Gen 14:7 “En-mishpat (Kadesh)”
Gen 14:8 “Bela (Zoar)”
Gen 14:17 “the valley of Shaveh (the Kings Valley)”
2. The death of Moses.
Deut 34:5 (ESV)
5 So Moses the servant of the LORD died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the LORD,
“An unnamed prophetic figure added ch. 34 sometime after Moses completed his work on the Pentateuch.”
3. Reference to the Chaldeans.
Gen 11:28 (ESV)
28 Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his kindred, in Ur of the Chaldeans.
“The Chaldeans did not become contenders for the Babylonian throne until the middle of the eighth century BC. Consequently, the expression “of the Chaldees” could represent a scribal gloss supplied to distinguish Abraham’s Ur from other cities carrying the same name.”
4. The phrase “until this day”, “to this day”, “you are this day” are used in several places.
“The expression … often occurs to direct the attention of the audience to an event whose impact is still obvious.”
Gen 26:33 (KJV)
33 And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba unto this day.
Gen 32:32 (KJV)
32 Therefore the children of Israel eat not [of] the sinew which shrank, which [is] upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day: because he touched the hollow of Jacob’s thigh in the sinew that shrank.
Gen 47:26 (KJV)
26 And Joseph made it a law over the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth part; except the land of the priests only, which became not Pharaoh’s.
Deut 2:22 (KJV)
22 As he did to the children of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead even unto this day:
Deut 3:14 (ESV)
14 Jair the Manassite took all the region of Argob, that is, Bashan, as far as the border of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and called the villages after his own name, Havvoth-jair, as it is to this day.)
Deut 4:20 (AMP)
20 But the Lord has taken you and brought you forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be to Him a people of His own possession, as you are this day.
Deut 11:4 (ESV)
4 and what he did to the army of Egypt, to their horses and to their chariots, how he made the water of the Red Sea flow over them as they pursued after you, and how the LORD has destroyed them to this day,
Deut 29:4 (KJV)
4 Yet the LORD hath not given you a heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day.
Deut 29:28 (ESV)
28 and the LORD uprooted them from their land in anger and fury and great wrath, and cast them into another land, as they are this day.’
Deut 34:6 (KJV)
6 And he buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulcher unto this day.
5. Parenthetical comment of Deut 2:10-12
Deut 2:10-12 (ESV)
10 ( The Emim formerly lived there, a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim.
11 Like the Anakim they are also counted as Rephaim, but the Moabites call them Emim.
12 The Horites also lived in Seir formerly, but the people of Esau dispossessed them and destroyed them from before them and settled in their place, as Israel did to the land of their possession, which the LORD gave to them.)
This passage has several comments that would’ve taken place much later, such as referring to the land that was given to Israel.
6. Parenthetical comment of Deut 3:11
Deut 3:11 (ESV)
11 (For only Og the king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bed was a bed of iron. Is it not in Rabbah of the Ammonites? Nine cubits was its length, and four cubits its breadth, according to the common cubit.)
Based on these examples (and more in Grisanti’s paper), there are a number of textual evidence the text has been modified/added after Moses wrote the Torah after the Exodus. The text is targeted for a later period to read past events in a manner for them to understand it.
A modern example of this is all the translations we have now. Biblical text is modified so that modern readers can understand what the original text means.