https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relief#/m … se)_01.JPG
Since bas-relief has been mentioned multiple times, we’ll start looking at this first.
What is bas-relief?
Bas-relief is a type of relief (sculpture) that has less depth to the faces and figures than they actually have, when measured proportionately (to scale). This technique keeps the natural shapes of the figures and allows the work to be seen from many angles without twisting the figures themselves.
There is a continuation of the bas-relief technique into the next category, altorilievo, or high relief. High relief makes deeper images than bas-relief. Instead of shallow backgrounds that are a few inches (cm) deep at most, they can be up to several feet (a few meters) deep in altorilievo.
Some of the best examples of bas-relief are the Assyrian Lion Hunt Reliefs, which are housed at the British Museum. The attention to detail and appearance of the lions moving make them stand out, especially for the time period they were made in.
a type of art in which shapes are cut from the surrounding stone so that they stand out slightly against a flat surface, or a work of art done in this way
Relief is a sculptural method in which the sculpted pieces remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.
There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English. The full range includes high relief (alto-rilievo, haut-relief), where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief (mezzo-rilievo), low relief (basso-rilievo), or French: bas-relief (French pronunciation: [baʁəljɛf]), and shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only very slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is also sunk relief, which was mainly restricted to Ancient Egypt (see below). However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, and these two are generally the only terms used to discuss most work.
What I’ve already addressed about bas-relief…
otseng wrote: ↑Thu Mar 02, 2023 6:20 am
Here’s what you posted:
I assume you are referring to the “bas-relief” technique by Joe Nickell.Nickell and others contend the Shroud is a 14th-century painting on linen, suggested through the 1988 radiocarbon dating. One of Nickell’s many objections to the Shroud’s authenticity is the proportions of the figure’s face and body. Both are consistent with the proportions used by Gothic artists of the period and are not those of an actual person. Experts on both sides of the controversy have tried to duplicate the Shroud using medieval and modern methods. Claimants to the Shroud’s authenticity believe the image could have been produced at the moment of resurrection by radiation, electrical discharge, or ultraviolet radiation; Nickell created a credible shroud using the bas relief method and contends that forgers had equivalent materials available during the 14th century.
If he used paint in his bas-relief, there is no evidence of paint used to form the image. If he used a scorch technique, then it would fluoresce under ultraviolet light imaging, but this is not detected on the shroud except for the 1532 burn marks and the poker holes. Also, by pressing the cloth onto a statue, when it is pulled off and pressed flat, it would have major distortions, which we do not see on the shroud. Though it might have a photo-negative effect, it would not have 3-D encoding. Also doubtful his image is only on the top few fibrils of the cloth. Further, he failed to even try to simulate the blood stains. These are just a few of the problems that come to mind with his claim.
otseng wrote: ↑Sun Apr 09, 2023 7:23 am
Let me summarize what I’ve posted so far on bas-relief imaging…otseng wrote: ↑Thu Mar 02, 2023 6:20 am If he used paint in his bas-relief, there is no evidence of paint used to form the image. If he used a scorch technique, then it would fluoresce under ultraviolet light imaging, but this is not detected on the shroud except for the 1532 burn marks and the poker holes. Also, by pressing the cloth onto a statue, when it is pulled off and pressed flat, it would have major distortions, which we do not see on the shroud. Though it might have a photo-negative effect, it would not have 3-D encoding. Also doubtful his image is only on the top few fibrils of the cloth. Further, he failed to even try to simulate the blood stains. These are just a few of the problems that come to mind with his claim.otseng wrote: ↑Tue Mar 21, 2023 6:31 am
“Although no single theory adequately accounts for all of the observations, it is
concluded that the image is the result of some cellulose oxidation-dehydration reaction
rather than an applied pigment.”
https://www.shroud.com/pdfs/Physics%20C … 0OCRsm.pdf
For attempts to do a bas-relief through scorching, evidence is against this as well.One of the most important arguments against the scorch is related to UV fluorescence. It is well
known that the UV/Vis fluorescence photography of the TS shows that the body image does not
fluoresce while the light scorches emit a reddish fluorescence. Miller and Pellicori performed several
experiments using the same equipment as in Turin.
The fundamental mechanisms involved in color production by any kind of scorch are clear. At a given
temperature above a certain threshold, the color of the portions of fibers in narrow contact with the
hot material immediately begins to change. In the same time, the heat propagates along the fiber
and, probably, between adjacent fibers. But the key parameter is the very low diffusivity of linen:
there is a steep color gradient. In this sense, scorching can be seen as an almost perfect “contact-
only” image formation process. No contact, no color.
The Turin shroud image is continuous: on the face, all the anatomical parts are seen, including for
example the sides of the nostrils. There is no “hole” (taking into account the “banding effect”). Of
course the lack of image in some areas (the areas surrounding the hands for instance) does not prove
that the TS image is a contact-only image. Thus, a forger using the scorching technique would have to
put the linen in contact with all the parts of the bas-relief.
The color of the TS image fibers is everywhere the same: a pale yellow. This does correspond to what
I called a very light or a light scorch. This is obtained on a small surface at low temperature.
At thread level, the TS image color distribution is continuous: all the threads are colored. Because the
scorch mechanism is a contact-only mechanism, this can only be obtained by an intimate contact, i.e.
a relatively high contact pressure.
Consequently, in theory, in order to obtain an image resembling the TS image, a forger would have to
use a bas-relief, to heat it uniformly in a narrow range of low temperature, to apply it firmly on all
parts of the bas-relief and to control the contact pressure and the contact-time.
Let’s assume that after some trials, he would have succeeded in this task. Even in this case the above
table shows the fundamental differences with the TS image characteristics as seen through the
The main arguments ruling out the scorch hypothesis can be summarized as follows:
– It is simply impossible to obtain an “image” made only of pale yellow fibers.
– A color gradient between the horizontal highest part and the oblique lateral parts of the threads is
always observed and particularly obvious in very light and light scorched areas.
22- If on a given flat area a faint yellow superficial color can be obtained, the color distribution does not
match that of the TS image: most of the threads are colorless and the gradient at thread level is
obvious. Applying a higher contact pressure result in a color distribution more uniform (more threads
are colored), a less obvious gradient (although detectable) and finally an image distribution that is
more similar to that of the TS image, although clearly different. But in this case, several fibers at the
topmost parts of these threads are burned. A higher contact pressure is the only way to obtain
shading. Even with a one millimeter high relief (the nose for instance), the contrast with the adjacent
parts is much too high with respect to the TS image (as shown by Jackson) and this fact is explained
by the observations through the microscope.
– the consequence is that a light scorch does not show truly the halftone effect observed on the TS
image: in the more colored areas, shading is not obtained by a higher density of only pale yellowed
fibers, but by a higher density of more colored fibers, with a wide range of colors: from brown-dark
burned fibers to few pale yellow fibers with the gradient described above.
– No striation or bundles of more colored fibers are seen in any scorched areas.
– The “signature” of a scorch is found in all kind of scorches, even in very light and light scorches:
even at the lowest temperature, some protruding burned fibers are observed and many small
opaque brown to dark burned pieces of fibers are easily found everywhere in the sticky-tape
experiments. This was not the case for the direct observations with the microscope on the Shroud in
1978 or on the sticky-tapes.
All these differences are related to the fundamental properties of color distribution resulting from
the scorching of any linen fabric, i.e. the fact that a scorch is a contact-only mechanism associated
with the very low heat conductivity of linen and the spatial geometry of the fabric. This is inevitable.
The TS image is not a scorch, even a light scorch. In fact, this old hypothesis is very easy to rule out
definitively as the body image formation mechanism with some basic experiments and a microscope.
Questions left unresolved with the bas-relief:
If the cloth was pressed against the body, there should be severe wrapping distortion. How was this avoided?
Since the image is only the result of fibers that have oxidized/dehydrated, how was this achieved?
How was a negative effect achieved and why even try to produce a negative image?
Why are the ears missing?
Why is there no imaging on the top of the head?
How was half-tone imaging achieved?
Why should there be 3-D information encoding through a bas-relief?
Why should there be x-ray imaging effects?
Why is there imaging on the back side of the cloth?
How were the blood stains formed?
Why are there some blood stains outside the body image?
Who did the bas-relief?
If it was a work of art, then why is the TS not recognized by the art community?