Let me summarize what I’ve posted so far on bas-relief imaging…

otseng wrote: Wed Apr 05, 2023 7:59 amI don’t see any attempt in Costanzo’s experiment to replicate the blood stains. Also doubt the experiment accounts for all the image features found on the TS. In other words, yes, he attempted to make a replica of the TS, but failed to fully replicate it.
otseng wrote: Thu Mar 02, 2023 6:20 am If he used paint in his bas-relief, there is no evidence of paint used to form the image. If he used a scorch technique, then it would fluoresce under ultraviolet light imaging, but this is not detected on the shroud except for the 1532 burn marks and the poker holes. Also, by pressing the cloth onto a statue, when it is pulled off and pressed flat, it would have major distortions, which we do not see on the shroud. Though it might have a photo-negative effect, it would not have 3-D encoding. Also doubtful his image is only on the top few fibrils of the cloth. Further, he failed to even try to simulate the blood stains. These are just a few of the problems that come to mind with his claim.
otseng wrote: Tue Mar 21, 2023 6:31 am

otseng wrote: Thu Mar 02, 2023 7:44 pm There is no stain on the TS. The coloration is only due to dehydration-oxidation of the linen, much like when linen is exposed to light. Also, is it only affecting the top one or two fibrils in the cloth? Is it producing a half-tone effect?

“Although no single theory adequately accounts for all of the observations, it is
concluded that the image is the result of some cellulose oxidation-dehydration reaction
rather than an applied pigment.” … 0OCRsm.pdf

For attempts to do a bas-relief through scorching, evidence is against this as well.

One of the most important arguments against the scorch is related to UV fluorescence. It is well
known that the UV/Vis fluorescence photography of the TS shows that the body image does not
fluoresce while the light scorches emit a reddish fluorescence. Miller and Pellicori performed several
experiments using the same equipment as in Turin.

The fundamental mechanisms involved in color production by any kind of scorch are clear. At a given
temperature above a certain threshold, the color of the portions of fibers in narrow contact with the
hot material immediately begins to change. In the same time, the heat propagates along the fiber
and, probably, between adjacent fibers. But the key parameter is the very low diffusivity of linen:
there is a steep color gradient. In this sense, scorching can be seen as an almost perfect “contact-
only” image formation process. No contact, no color.
The Turin shroud image is continuous: on the face, all the anatomical parts are seen, including for
example the sides of the nostrils. There is no “hole” (taking into account the “banding effect”). Of
course the lack of image in some areas (the areas surrounding the hands for instance) does not prove
that the TS image is a contact-only image. Thus, a forger using the scorching technique would have to
put the linen in contact with all the parts of the bas-relief.
The color of the TS image fibers is everywhere the same: a pale yellow. This does correspond to what
I called a very light or a light scorch. This is obtained on a small surface at low temperature.
At thread level, the TS image color distribution is continuous: all the threads are colored. Because the
scorch mechanism is a contact-only mechanism, this can only be obtained by an intimate contact, i.e.
a relatively high contact pressure.
Consequently, in theory, in order to obtain an image resembling the TS image, a forger would have to
use a bas-relief, to heat it uniformly in a narrow range of low temperature, to apply it firmly on all
parts of the bas-relief and to control the contact pressure and the contact-time.
Let’s assume that after some trials, he would have succeeded in this task. Even in this case the above
table shows the fundamental differences with the TS image characteristics as seen through the
The main arguments ruling out the scorch hypothesis can be summarized as follows:
– It is simply impossible to obtain an “image” made only of pale yellow fibers.
– A color gradient between the horizontal highest part and the oblique lateral parts of the threads is
always observed and particularly obvious in very light and light scorched areas.
22- If on a given flat area a faint yellow superficial color can be obtained, the color distribution does not
match that of the TS image: most of the threads are colorless and the gradient at thread level is
obvious. Applying a higher contact pressure result in a color distribution more uniform (more threads
are colored), a less obvious gradient (although detectable) and finally an image distribution that is
more similar to that of the TS image, although clearly different. But in this case, several fibers at the
topmost parts of these threads are burned. A higher contact pressure is the only way to obtain
shading. Even with a one millimeter high relief (the nose for instance), the contrast with the adjacent
parts is much too high with respect to the TS image (as shown by Jackson) and this fact is explained
by the observations through the microscope.
– the consequence is that a light scorch does not show truly the halftone effect observed on the TS
image: in the more colored areas, shading is not obtained by a higher density of only pale yellowed
fibers, but by a higher density of more colored fibers, with a wide range of colors: from brown-dark
burned fibers to few pale yellow fibers with the gradient described above.
– No striation or bundles of more colored fibers are seen in any scorched areas.
– The “signature” of a scorch is found in all kind of scorches, even in very light and light scorches:
even at the lowest temperature, some protruding burned fibers are observed and many small
opaque brown to dark burned pieces of fibers are easily found everywhere in the sticky-tape
experiments. This was not the case for the direct observations with the microscope on the Shroud in
1978 or on the sticky-tapes.
All these differences are related to the fundamental properties of color distribution resulting from
the scorching of any linen fabric, i.e. the fact that a scorch is a contact-only mechanism associated
with the very low heat conductivity of linen and the spatial geometry of the fabric. This is inevitable.
The TS image is not a scorch, even a light scorch. In fact, this old hypothesis is very easy to rule out
definitively as the body image formation mechanism with some basic experiments and a microscope.

https://shroudofturin.files.wordpress.c … per-en.pdf

Questions left unresolved with the bas-relief:

If the cloth was pressed against the body, there should be severe wrapping distortion. How was this avoided?
Since the image is only the result of fibers that have oxidized/dehydrated, how was this achieved?
How was a negative effect achieved and why even try to produce a negative image?
Why are the ears missing?
Why is there no imaging on the top of the head?
How was half-tone imaging achieved?
Why should there be 3-D information encoding through a bas-relief?
Why should there be x-ray imaging effects?
Why is there imaging on the back side of the cloth?
How were the blood stains formed?
Why are there some blood stains outside the body image?
Who did the bas-relief?
If it was a work of art, then why is the TS not recognized by the art community?