As for detection of albumin, it is not the only evidence of blood. Heller and Adler performed a battery of chemical tests to analyze the blood, with several pointing to it being human/primate blood.
To summarize, they found:
– Proteins: fluorescamine testing, FTIR microspectrometry and proteases testing.
– Albumin of primate origin: microchemical testing, immunological testing.
– Porphyrin: hydrazine/formic acid fluorescence specific test. This porphyrin is not from
– Hemoglobin/methemoglobin: specific Soret bands in spectra, indicative reflection spectra ∗ ,
positive hemochromagen tets, positive cyanmethemoglobin tests.
– Specifically, methemoglobin in its para-hemic form found particularly in hemolysed blood
– High levels of bilirubin (microchemical testing), consistent with the para-hemic
methemoglobin, both consistent with the partial hemolysis of the blood of a tortured living
– Relatively low amounts of iron liberated only after digestion with Aqua Regia as expected
for heme bound iron, contrary to the iron of iron oxide pigments.
– Iron content (XRF) consistent with blood.
– Absence of any visible iron oxide residue after dissolution with both proteases and
– Positive highly specific immunological tests with antibodies against whole human serum,
human albumin, blood type antigens and human globulins.
– Laboratories experiments with blood+bilirubin matching the microspectrometry spectra
observed on the Shroud fibers and showing a complete mismatch with iron oxide+vermilion
in gelatine paint simulacra.The only possible conclusion is that the “blood” on the Shroud is real old denaturated human (or at least primate) blood.
A CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SHROUD OF TURIN
JOHN H. HELLER AND ALAN D. ADLER
We have in our opinion confirmed that the “blood” is in fact real blood (cf., Table 5) and this
is in agreement with spectroscopic 11-15 and forensics studies. We have shown that the bulk of
the iron present on the Shroud is in the cellulosic bound form and shown that it is readily
accounted for by a well understood natural process, viz., retting, that the linen of the Shroud
must have been subjected to, and that this conclusion is supported by the X-ray data. 15 We
find the iron in the blood areas behaves as heme bound iron. We find iron oxide concentrated
in the water stain margins and it is not bound there by a protein. We have demonstrated that
iron is present in all the old linens we have tested and retting is a reasonable explanation for
its occurrence there. Our conclusions are not only self-consistent, but agree with the X-ray”
and spectroscopic” studies which have shown that “iron-oxide” does not correlate with the
visually observed image and cannot account for it.
We have further shown that the body image, in fact, is not produced by any pigments, stains,
or dyes and is specifically not accounted for by “age yellowed” protein. Protein is present
only in blood and in the halo area around some blood. The image arises from dehydratively
oxidized cellulose and can be accounted for, but a specific mechanism cannot be provided
(see below). This conclusion is consistent with previous work, 9-16 in particular the
microscopic observations, 16 that show there is no evidence of cementation of the body image
fibrils to one another, no capillarity or penetration of the color below the top surface fibrils on
the crowns of the fibers of the weave, no evidence of brush marks, etc.
We have also seen vermillion (in a “blood” area, though a different sample from that where
McCrone identified it). We feel that it is more easily explained as evidence that artists have
copied the Shroud (an historically verifiable fact 6, 7, 9 )48
and not that an artist has rendered it (a severely disputed historical fact 7 ). In this regard it is
interesting to note that the elements other than Hg detected by McCrone’s analysis, viz., Na,
Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe and Cu, are in fact all found in whole blood. 81 However, it
would be a most peculiar minerological assemblage that would provide these elements and
not the expected iron earth pigment impurities, i.e., Mn, Co, and Ni. His “particle medium
agglomerates” where he has detected these elements are the same as our globs which we have
shown contain only low amounts of heme bound iron and no visually detectable amounts of
Hg. In this regard it should be noted here that the “red color” seen arises from the porphyrin
rings present and not the iron contained therein. 14, 33 In fact, insertation of iron into a
porphyrin lowers its intrinsic extinction. Therefore, the “iron” we see in the globs is at the
lower limits of our detection, which would place the “mercury” that McCrone sees at trace
levels far below the limits that would provide a visually detectable color evident to the eye.
This is entirely consistent with contamination due to the artists who have copied the Shroud.
Finally, any applied pigment is incapable of rendering all of the image characteristics found
on this cloth. It is highly improbable that any 14 th century artist would produce a “reversed”
image or could encode the degree of three dimensional, computer readable information 9
found in this image and leave no other surviving historical evidence of his evident genius.
It is remarkable how closely all these results were predicted by Rogers prior to the actual
investigation of the Shroud. 82 Until further studies are made, the explanation of the image on
this intriguing and controversial relic remains a mystery.
Using a Kevex ISI 100B Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. we have examined 16 different
globs and fibrils from blood image, body image, and non-image tape samples. The fibrils all
show strong Ca and Fe signals. The globs all show Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe.
Some also show Cu and Zn. Fibrils and globs from the cinnabar “track” area on 6BF also
show Hg. Most importantly, there is no Co, Mn, or Ni detected anywhere and the Hg is only
detectable in “track” samples. Similar results were obtained by J. Jackson and W. Ercoline in
their SEM studies. These results and the conclusions to be drawn therefrom are identical with
those from the microchemistry.