Exodus out of Egypt

Let’s discuss next one of the most significant events of the Bible – the Exodus out of Egypt.

The Exodus (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Yeẓi’at Miẓrayim: lit. ’Departure from Egypt’) is the founding myth[a] of the Israelites.[1] It tells a story of Israelite enslavement and departure from Egypt, revelations at biblical Mount Sinai, and wanderings in the wilderness up to the borders of Canaan.[2] Its message is that the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh their god, and therefore belong to him by covenant.[1]

The consensus of modern scholars is that the Torah does not give an accurate account of the origins of the Israelites, who appear instead to have formed as an entity in the central highlands of Canaan in the late second millennium BCE from the indigenous Canaanite culture.[3][4][5] Most modern scholars believe that the story of the Exodus has some historical basis,[6][7] but contains little material that is provable.[8]


The story of Egypt and the Exodus is a significant portion of the Torah and most modern scholars believe it was written between 600 – 400 BC.

“The majority of Biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian captivity (c. 6th century BCE), based on earlier written sources and oral traditions, and that it was completed with final revisions during the post-Exilic period (c. 5th century BCE).”

Traditional authorship of the Torah ascribes it to Moses and dates it before 1200 BC.

“Historically, Jews and Christians alike have held that Moses was the author/compiler of the first five books of the OT.”
https://www.biblica.com/resources/schol … o-genesis/

“The exact dates when Moses lived are still a matter of controversy. The reason is that the precise date of the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt is still debated. Two different dates, 1445 B.C. or 1290 B.C., are put forward to be the date of the Exodus.”
https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/don … rt_678.cfm

Archaeologist Ze’ev Herzog says, “This is what archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the Land of Israel: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander in the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and did not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel.”

Stephen Rosenberg says, “The Exodus is so fundamental to us and our Jewish sources that it is embarrassing that there is no evidence outside of the Bible to support it. So we prefer not to talk about it, and hate to be asked about it…. There is nothing in the Egyptian records to support it. Nothing on the slavery of the Israelites, nothing on the plagues that persuaded Pharaoh to let them go, nothing on the miraculous crossing of the Red Sea, nothing.”
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Con … say-348464

“The Torah devotes more than four books to the proposition that the Israelites came to Canaan after having been subjugated in Egypt for generations, and yet there is no archaeological evidence to support that they were ever in Egypt.”

So, does archaeology disprove the Biblical claims?
Were the Israelites never in Egypt and did not wander in Egypt and never had a military campaign in Canaan?
Is there no evidence of any of these Biblical claims?
Is Israelites in Egypt simply a fictional narrative?
Was the Pentateuch written after 600 BC, centuries after the alleged Exodus took place?