In addition to the blood from the crown of thorns, there are also facial wounds:
– Swelling of right cheek
– Partial closure of right eye
– Abrasian and deviation of the nose
– Part of beard missing
– Possible displacement of jaw
On the face over the right cheek, there is a swelling and there is partial closure of the right
eye. There is a very slight deviation of the nose and at the tip of the nose is an area of
discoloration consistent with a bruise. Detailed photographs and microscopic studies of
the cloth in the nose image area show scratches and dirt. These are consistent with the
nose having made contact with the ground, most likely as the result of a fall. The
deviation of the nose may reflect injury to the nasal cartilage, although this is less clear.
There is a distinct abrasion at the tip of the nose and the right cheek is distinctly swollen as compared with the left cheek.
Excoriations are to be found almost everywhere on the face, but especially on the right side. This side is also deformed, as if there were hӕmatomes beneath the bleeding surfaces. The two superciliary arches show those contused wounds which we now know well, and which form from within outwards, being caused by a blow with a fist or a stick, the bony arch cleaving the skin on its deep surface below the brow.
The most noticeable lesion consists of a broad triangular excoriation below the right eye-socket. The base is ¾ of an inch long; the point is directed upwards and inwards, and joins another excoriated area on the nose, about two-thirds of the way up. At this level the nose is deformed by a fracture of the posterior of the cartilage, near to where it joins the nasal bone, which is intact. All these lesions seem to have been caused, as Judica says, by a stick about 1¾ inches in diameter, and vigorously handled by an assailant standing on the right of Jesus. There are also excoriations on the left cheek, at the end of the nose and of the lower lip.
We can find the marks of this ill-treatment on the shroud, for there is a large bruised wound on the right cheek and the septum of the nose is broken. But these blows, most of which fell on the head, could have produced quite a serious concussion, what we should call cerebral shock or even cerebral contusion; it would consist of a fairly widespread breaking of the small vessels in the meninges and in the brain itself.
Barbet, Dr. Pierre. A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ As Described by a Surgeon.
The crushing of the nose and the swelling of the eye and right cheekbone reveal the type of injuries that could have caused a blow from the stick; cylindrical object about 4.5 cm in diameter. You can also see the lack of hair in the beard, as if pieces had been deliberately pulled out.
By its appearance, the face reveals traces of an intense beating. Presents injuries caused by both direct and indirect blows, perhaps due to falls: swelling in the forehead area, region of both superciliary arches and mid-frontal area; tumescence continues in the arch of the right eyebrow, more pronounced in the outer part of the eye, which should condition its partial closure; abundant clots of vital blood on the forehead, temples, neck and scalp; profusion of arterial or venous hemorrhages, compatible with wounds caused by sharp objects, arranged peripherally on the skull ( cap of spines of ziziphus jujuba); large contusion under the right zygomatic region (right cheek) in the shape of a triangle, the most elongated vertex of which is directed towards the crest of the nose; at the level of the left vertex of the nasal dorsum, there is a bruised and bruised area caused by a blow that must have fractured the nasal cartilage, causing the nose to deviate to the left; the nose has a flattened and flattened left wing; the lips, mustache, chin and beard are impregnated with blood; abundant streams of blood mixed with saliva and fluid from pulmonary edema, coming out of the right corner of the mouth; very bruised chin, and abundant streams of blood coming out of the nostrils, forming two jets that cross the right side of the mouth and the center of the lower lip.
Image processing of the TS face shows that the Man represented in it has undergone a maxillo-facial trauma, especially a left displacement of the mandible, probably due to temporo-mandibular joint lesions. This condition has not been described before, despite several studies on the subject.
Injuries to the face align with the following passages:
Matthew 26:67 (NET)
Then they spat in his face and struck him with their fists. And some slapped him, saying, “Prophesy for us, you Christ! Who hit you?”
Matthew 27:30 (NET)
They spat on him and took the staff and struck him repeatedly on the head.
Isa 50:6 (NET)
I offered my back to those who attacked, my jaws to those who tore out my beard; I did not hide my face from insults and spitting.