Brickmakers, Tomb of Rekhmire, ca. 1479–1425 BC
After Ahmose I reconquered Egypt and the surrounding areas, the conquered foreigners, including the Hyksos, were then forced as slaves.
“New Kingdom, with its relentless military operations, is the epoch of large-scale foreign slavery”.
“The shift in the status of local work force is an evident sign of an overall evolution of Egyptian social fabric as a result of foreign involvement during the late Dynasty 18. Military and commercial activity brought many Asiatics to Egypt, either as booty or as slaves bought in slave markets.”
https://factsanddetails.com/world/cat56 … -6151.html
“Ahmose’s officers and soldiers were rewarded with spoil and captives, who became personal slaves.”
https://www.britannica.com/place/ancien … 9-1075-bce
Ahmose, son of Ebana, served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I.
Ahmose was awarded slaves and other spoils by the pharaoh after Avaris was sacked.
The foreigners captured during military campaigns are, for example, referred to in the Annals of Thutmose III as “men in captivity” and individuals were referred to as “dependents” (mrj). In reward for his services in the construction of temples across Egypt, Thutmose III rewarded his official Minmose over 150 “dependents”. During and after the reign of Amenhotep II, coerced temple labor was only performed by male and female slaves.
If we look at the imagery of people making bricks in Rekhmire’s tomb, their dress is of simple loincloths like those of Egyptian peasants. Yet, the accompanying text specifically identifies them as captives brought by his majesty to make bricks for the temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes.
The men have various Levantine traits, one has blue eyes, two have light colored body hair and all three have light skin and hair. None of these physical traits would be used to depict Egyptian men. Another wall within the same tomb depicts Levantines at work, wearing plain white kilts, also an Egyptian style.
Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Rameses.
Semitic (“Asiatic”) laborers in Egypt making bricks, etc. (15th Century BCE), doing what Bible describes Hebrews as doing when enslaved in Egypt. The captions include the descriptions: “Captives whom his majesty brought, for the works of the temple of Amon” and “The taskmaster, he says to the builders: “The rod is in my hand; be not idle.”
And they embittered their life by hard labours, in the clay and in brick-making, and all the works in the plains, according to all the works, wherein they caused them to serve with violence.