After the 10th plague, Pharaoh let the people go.
Exod 12:30-32 (KJV)
30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for [there was] not a house where [there was] not one dead.
31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, Rise up, [and] get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the LORD, as ye have said.
32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also.
The Israelites then left Egypt.
An interesting passage mentions “a mixed multitude” also went with them.
Exod 12:37-38 (KJV)
37 And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot [that were] men, beside children.
38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, [even] very much cattle.
In Hebrew, the “mixed multitude” is “erev rav”.
“Erev Rav (Hebrew: עֵרֶב רַב ‘êreḇ raḇ “mixed multitude”) was a group that included Egyptians and others who had joined the Tribes of Israel on the Exodus.”
Other translations of Ex 12:38:
ERV – A great number of people who were not Israelites went with them, along with many sheep, cattle, and other livestock.
MSG – There was also a crowd of riffraff tagging along, not to mention the large flocks and herds of livestock.
NLT – A rabble of non-Israelites went with them, along with great flocks and herds of livestock.
UST – Many other people who were not Israelites went along with them. There was also a large amount of livestock, including flocks of sheep and goats and herds of cattle.
YLT – and a great rabble also hath gone up with them, and flock and herd–very much cattle.
They were later attributed to have influenced the Israelites to worship the golden calf.
“Their influence is said to have been involved in the golden calf and other incidents where the people questioned Moses and his laws.”
There are many theories who constituted the erev rav:
– Foreigners that intermarried with the Israelites
– Egyptians that were convinced of the power of Yahweh after the 10 plagues
– Other slaves who saw this as an opportunistic time to escape Egypt
– Non-Israelite proselytes
The term “erev rav” is even used today by modern Jews as a deragatory term.
When the Israelites left Egypt, they were accompanied by an ʿerev rav (Exodus 12:38). This obscure term has been interpreted in different ways throughout two millennia of Bible interpretation, both positively and negatively, and modern scholars still debate its exact meaning. The term survives in modern Jewish discourse as a slur against other Jews.
The Erev Rav are those that appear to be Jews, but are imposters. They are not Torah observant (even if they might claim to be) and are, on the contrary, idolaters or atheists who push godless ideas. They are “leaders” that guide Jews astray, and inspire the transgression of Torah law.
Myself, I believe the erev rav were for the most part comprised of the Hyksos. They would’ve been the group of non-Israelites that were closely associated with the Israelites (and most likely intermarried with) and worshipped pagan practices that led them to worship the golden calf.