After Marino and Benford presented their paper at the Sindone 2000 conference, Barrie Schwortz posted their paper on his shroud.com website. Ray Rogers, the lead chemist of STURP, read the paper and was mad at Schwortz for posting conspiracy theories, esp from amateurs. Rogers was one of the STURP scientists that accepted the 1988 C-14 dating and the claim it was a fake and stopped researching the TS. Rogers called Schwortz and said, “What the hell is this? This is nonsense and I can prove these people wrong in 5 minutes.” Schwortz replied, “Well Ray, go for it.” Rogers had a piece from the Raes sample in his safe. And after a couple of hours of analyzing it, he called Schwortz back and said, “Boy, I can’t believe it. They’re right.” Later, he was able to get a part of the C-14 sample leftover and confirmed the hypothesis from Marino and Benford.
Ray Rogers published his findings in Thermochimica Acta, Jan 2005 – “Studies on the radiocarbon sample from the shroud of turin”. He provided evidence the C-14 sample contained cotton and a dye was applied to the cotton.
On 12 December 2003, I received samples of both warp
and weft threads that Prof. Luigi Gonella had taken from
the radiocarbon sample before it was distributed for dating.
Gonella reported that he excised the threads from the center
of the radiocarbon sample.
To the right of that, some discrete lakes can be
seen adhering to the surface of a cotton fiber. Several ar-
eas of yellow-dyed gum can be seen. Four cotton fibers and
two flax fibers appear in the view. The radiocarbon sample
contains both a gum/dye/mordant coating and cotton fibers.
The main part of the shroud does not contain these materi-
The presence of alizarin dye and red lakes in the Raes
and radiocarbon samples indicates that the color has been
manipulated. Specifically, the color and distribution of the
coating implies that repairs were made at an unknown time
with foreign linen dyed to match the older original mate-
rial. Such repairs were suggested by Benford and Marino.
The consequence of this conclusion is that the ra-
diocarbon sample was not representative of the original
A gum/dye/mordant coating is easy to observe on Raes
and radiocarbon yarns. No other part of the shroud shows
such a coating.
Additionally, vanillin tests cooraborate the shroud with a 1st century date.
The fact that vanillin can not be detected in the lignin on
shroud fibers, Dead Sea scrolls linen, and other very old linens
indicates that the shroud is quite old. A determination of the
kinetics of vanillin loss suggests that the shroud is between
1300- and 3000-years old. Even allowing for errors in the
measurements and assumptions about storage conditions, the
cloth is unlikely to be as young as 840 years.