Titian, Christ Carrying the Cross. circa 1565.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Ca … _Prado.jpg
All the gospels attest to Jesus carrying the cross (which later Simon of Cyrene helped to carry):[Mat 27:31-32 KJV] 31 And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify [him]. 32 And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. [Mar 15:20-21 KJV] 20 And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him. 21 And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian, who passed by, coming out of the country, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to bear his cross. [Luk 23:26 KJV] 26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear [it] after Jesus. [Jhn 19:16-17 KJV] 16 Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led [him] away. 17 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called [the place] of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:
There are abrasion marks on the shoulders of the TSM which correlate with carrying a cross:
Two large discolored areas over the shoulder blades are consistent with bleeding from
surface abrasions as if a heavy, rough object had been in contact with the skin at these
points. From what is known about crucifixions, it was the custom for the crossbar of the
cross to have been carried by the victim, supported across the upper back and shoulders.
It is quite likely that it was this sort of structure which produced the abrasions over the
An interesting finding is noted over the shoulder blade area on the right and left sides. This consists of an abrasion or denuding of the skin surfaces, consistent with a heavy object, like a beam. Resting over the shoulder blades and producing a rubbing effect on the skin surfaces.
It is therefore much more likely that the TS Man has carried the cross rather the patibulum . If it
were so, it would mean that the Man of the Shroud has carried the cross on both shoulders, first right
and then left. It can therefore reasonable be assumed that:
1. the more marked bruise on the left shoulder would be due to the higher load on this area in
a more curved subject because weakened by the previous fall;
2. the TS Man has fallen more than once.
A life-size model of a cross has been built in accordance with the sizes reported in Section 2. It was built using cardboard, reinforced at the corners by plastic L-profiles; the result is shown in figure 3. As the first author is 169 cm tall and Jesus resulted , 175 ± 2 cm tall, he offered himself for the experiments.
The high-contrast TS dorsal body image seems to show four darker reddish areas in correspondence of the shoulders that could have been a heavy and harsh object rubbing on the Jesus skin. Figure 3 shows these areas that also present the scourge marks as more enlarged and less defined than in other zones of the body image; this is coherent with the chafe with relative high pressure on a previous wound.
In reference to the experiments regarding a convict carrying a cross, many positions have been studied; the most probable seems to be that reported in figure 3 where the insertion of one convict’s arm in one of the two triangles made by patibulum, stipes and crossbeam is visible.
It can be supposed that Jesus had first used his right shoulder to bring the cross. The abrasions in question are consistent with injuries caused by carrying the cross on the shoulders. The contact areas of the cross on the shoulder have been experimentally verified in the same figure 3.
The authors suppose that during a falling a shock could have been produced on the right end of the patibulum against the ground, perhaps a stone; the right shoulder and arm fast slipped from the conjunction of the patibulum with the stipes to the angle formed by the patibulum and the crossbeam of the cross and it was therefore blocked in the corner, inert. During the Jesus’s falling, his right arm remained entangled in the triangle of the cross and after a rebound of it the right arm was therefore raised over its limit. The relatively high mass of the cross therefore dragged the humerus forward and downward and produced the right shoulder dislocation.