Another point that the early date aligns better than the late date of the Exodus is the death of the firstborn son of Pharaoh. As with all events that were embarassing to the Egyptians, they commonly erased them from their records.
For the early date, Amenhotep II would be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Thutmose IV succeeded Amenhotep II as Pharaoh, but he was not the firstborn son. We have no idea what happened to the firstborn son.
“Thutmose IV was born to Amenhotep II and Tiaa, but was not actually the crown prince and Amenhotep II’s chosen successor to the throne. Some scholars speculate that Thutmose ousted his older brother in order to usurp power and then commissioned the Dream Stele in order to justify his unexpected kingship.”
“Traditionally, Amenhotep II’s eldest son should have been named Thutmose. A wall painting at Thebes displays a young Thutmose, likely Amenhotep II’s eldest son. Thutmose must have died in childhood since there are no later records of him.”
https://newcreation.blog/who-was-the-ph … he-exodus/
“The son who succeeded Amenhotep II was Thutmose IV (ca. 1418-1408 BC), whose Dream Stele-located between the paws of the Great Sphinx-reveals that he was not the original heir to the throne. Moreover, inscriptional and papyritious evidence confirms that Thutmose IV was not the eldest son of Amenhotep II.”
https://biblearchaeology.org/research/e … us-pharaoh
Thutmose IV had erected the Dream Stele in front of the Sphinx as a propoganda piece to legitimize his rule.
The Sphinx’s promise to make Thutmose ruler of Egypt if he clears the sand has led to speculation that Thutmose IV was not the crown prince (if he was, he would have ascended the throne on his father’s death anyway), and that he may instead have seized the throne from his older brothers, with the erection of the stele serving solely to legitimize his rule.
For the late date, the Pharaoh of the Exodus would be Ramesses II and his firstborn son was Amun-her-khepeshef.
“Amun-her-khepeshef (died c. 1254 BC; also Amonhirkhopshef, Amun-her-wenemef and Amun-her-khepeshef A to distinguish him from later people of the same name) was the firstborn son of Pharaoh Ramesses II and Queen Nefertari.”
“He died in year 40 of his father’s reign. Amun-her-shepeshef was probably between the age of 40 and 45.”
If Ramesses II was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, his eldest son Amun-her-khepeshef would’ve died at age 40. Though this might be possible, it would be less impactful than if the firstborn was a baby or a child. Ramesses II had over 48 sons and 40 daughters, so losing a son among many is not really a big deal. His firstborn not being a Pharaoh was not a big deal either since eventually he outlived his first 12 sons and only his 13th son succeeded him as Pharaoh.
“The Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II had a large number of children: between 48 to 50 sons, and 40 to 53 daughters”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_c … amesses_II
Merneptah or Merenptah (reigned July or August 1213 BC – May 2, 1203 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years, from late July or early August 1213 BC until his death on May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records. He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II, only coming to power because all his older brothers had died, including his full brother Khaemwaset or Khaemwase.