Ipuwer Papyrus

Similarities of the plagues in the Exodus account was written by the Egyptians in 19th Dynasty, the Admonitions of Ipuwer (Ipuwer Papyrus).

“The Ipuwer Papyrus has been dated no earlier than the Nineteenth Dynasty, around 1250 BCE.”

The Ipuwer Papyrus was written by a royal Egyptian scribe of the same name. He tells a lengthy story of absolute calamity befalling Egypt. Many references throughout the papyrus are strikingly similar to the biblical account of the 10 plagues—possible allusion can be found to at least six of the biblical plagues—as well as other elements of the Exodus account.

https://armstronginstitute.org/159-plag … ypt-proved

Of course, scholars reject the parallelism of the Exodus account and the Admonitions of Ipuwer since they don’t believe in the Exodus in the first place.

“Ipuwer has often been put forward in popular literature as confirmation of the biblical account of the Exodus, most notably because of its statement that “the river is blood” and its frequent references to servants running away. This assertion has not gained acceptance among scholars.”

But, if the Exodus event actually happened and it occurred in the 18th Dynasty, then it’s reasonable it influenced the Admonitions of Ipuwer.

A list of the similarities:

Indeed, the river is blood, yet men drink of it. Men shrink from human beings and thirst after water …. (Exodus 7:20, 18: “[A]nd all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. … [T]he Egyptians shall lothe to drink of the water ….”)

Indeed, [hearts] are violent, pestilence is throughout the land, blood is everywhere, death is not lacking …. (Exodus 9:15: “[T]hat I may smite thee and thy people with pestilence ….” Exodus 7:19: “[T]hat there may be blood throughout all the land of Egypt ….”)

Indeed, all animals, their hearts weep; cattle moan because of the state of the land …. (Exodus 9:3, 6: “Behold, the hand of the Lord is upon thy cattle which is in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep: there shall be a very grievous murrain. … [A]nd all the cattle of Egypt died.”)

Behold, the fire has gone up on high, and its burning goes forth against the enemies of the land …. Indeed, gates, columns and walls are burnt up …. (Exodus 9:23-24: “[A]nd the fire ran along upon the ground …. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous ….”)

Indeed, everywhere barley has perished …. (Exodus 9:31: “And the flax and the barley was smitten ….”)

The land is without light …. (Exodus 10:22: “[A]nd there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days.”)

Indeed, men are few, and he who places his brother in the ground is everywhere …. (Exodus 12:30: “[T]here was not a house where there was not one dead.”)

Indeed, every dead person is as a well-born man …. Indeed, the children of princes are dashed against walls …. (Exodus 12:29: “[A]t midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon ….”)

Indeed, laughter is perished and is [no longer] made; it is groaning that is throughout the land …. (Exodus 12:30: “[L]oud wailing was heard throughout the land of Egypt. There was not a single house where someone had not died”; New Living Translation.)

All is ruin! … Indeed, that has perished which yesterday was seen …. Ipuwer laments the utter—and sudden—destruction of the land.

Indeed, poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches …. (Exodus 12:35-36: “And the children of Israel … borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment …. And they spoiled the Egyptians.”)

Indeed, gold and lapis lazuli, silver and turquoise, carnelian and amethyst, Ibhet-stone and […] are strung on the necks of maidservants …. (Exodus 11:2: “[E]very woman (borrowed) of her neighbor, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.”)

And it shall come to pass, if they will not believe also these two signs, neither hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take of the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land: and the water which thou takest out of the river shall become blood upon the dry land.

https://armstronginstitute.org/159-plag … ypt-proved

Here is the full text of the Admonitions of Ipuwer:
https://web.archive.org/web/20190113210 … ipuwer.htm