– Printing press was invented (~1450)
– Machu Picchu was founded (~1450)
– Christopher Columbus was born (1451)
– Constantinople fell to the Turks marking the end of the Medieval period (1453)
– Hundred years’ war ended with the Battle of Castillon (1453)
At the behest of Duchess of Savoy Marguerite of Austria, the Shroud is no longer moved around with the Savoys during their travels, but given a permanent home in the Royal Chapel of Chambéry Castle. Duke Philibert, Duchess Marguerite, Francois of Luxembourg, viscount of Martigues, husband of Louise of Savoy (grand-daughter of Duke Louis), together with nearly all the local clergy, attend the ceremony of translation during which Laurent Alamand, bishop of Grenoble, solemnly carries the Shroud in its silver-gilt case from Chambéry’s Franciscan church to the Sainte-Chapelle. The Shroud is displayed on the Chapel’s high altar, then entrusted to the care of archdeacon Jacques Veyron and the canons of the Chapel, who replace it in its case and deposit it behind the high altar, in a special cavity hollowed out of the wall. In this cavity it is secured by an iron grille with four locks, each opened by separate keys, two of which are held by the Duke. Pope Sixtus IV confers on the Chambéry chapel the title Sainte Chapelle.
In 1516, King Francis I of France journeys to Chambery to venerate the shroud.
The following year, Martin Luther posted his 95 theses, which sparked the Reformation.
In Dec 4, 1532, there is a fire in the Sainte Chapelle in Chambery. The major burn marks on the shroud are a result from this fire.
Fire breaks out in the Sainte Chapelle, Chambéry, seriously damaging all its furnishings and fittings. Because the Shroud is protected by four locks, Canon Philibert Lambert and two Franciscans summon the help of a blacksmith to prise open the grille. By the time they succeed, Marguerite of Austria’s Shroud casket/reliquary as made to her orders by Lievin van Latham has become melted beyond repair by the heat. But the Shroud folded inside is preserved bar being scorched and holed by a drop of molten silver that fell on one corner.
On April 16, 1532, the Poor Clare nuns repair the shroud. They patch the holes and sew the Holland backing cloth to it.
Chambéry’s Poor Clare nuns repair the Shroud, sewing it onto a backing cloth (the Holland cloth), and sewing patches over the unsightliest of the damage. These repairs are completed on 2 May. Covered in cloth of gold, the Shroud is returned to the Savoys’ castle in Chambéry.
In 1578, Cardinal Charles Borromeo of Milan wants to venerate the shroud after the plague ravished the city. The shroud is moved to Turin so he would not have to cross the Alps. The shroud has remained in Turin since then.
The saintly Cardinal Charles Borromeo (1538-1584) decides to journey on foot from Milan to Chambery to give thanks to the Shroud following release of Milan from the plague. To save Borromeo the rigours of a journey across the Alps Duke Emanuel Philibert orders the cloth to be brought from Chambery.
In 1983, Umberto II transfers the shroud from the Savoy family to the living Pope on the condition the shroud remains in Turin.
Death of ex-king Umberto II in Cascais. The Shroud’s formal owner, his will discloses that he has bequeathed the Shroud to the Pope and his successors, with the proviso that the cloth stays in Turin.