In addition to scourging, image processing of the shroud also reveal 2 additional types of whip marks.
New image processing of the TS confirms the presence
of 3 different kinds of scourge marks, related to the use of
at least 2 different kinds of whips on the TS and much
more faint; they look like a fan composed by 3 – 4 thin
Type 1 marks are characterized by two or three spheres
(about 0.8 mm in diameter) connected by small bars, and
are compatible with the signs left by a Roman Flagrum.
Type 2 marks show relatively large and striate bands of
variable length, similar to scratches and are compatible
with flexible rods, like the famous “Virgae” used both as
torture instrument and as power symbol by the lictors.
Type 3 marks are more rare (they occur less than 15
The type 1 and type 2 marks are found together and the type 3 marks are only on the legs. So, most likely the type 1 and 2 marks occurred during the flagellation of Christ and the type 3 marks while Christ carried the cross.
Type1 marks randomly overlaps Type2, leading to the
conclusion that the TS Man was whipped with the Roman
Flagrum, after being beaten with flexible rods.
In the hypothesis that the TS Man is Jesus of Nazareth
dressed with a tunic which protected him from the next
lashes, and knowing that Type 3 marks can be only found
on the TS legs (probably not covered by the tunic), we can
suppose that Type 3 marks are the result of the whipping
of the TS Man during his uphill to the Calvary.