Ninth plague – Darkness
Exod 10:21 (KJV)
21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness [which] may be felt.
This plague was against one of the most important gods, Ra, god of the sun.
Ra (/rɑː/; Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ or rˤ; also transliterated rˤw /ˈɾiːʕuw/; cuneiform: 𒊑𒀀 ri-a or 𒊑𒅀ri-ia) or Re (/reɪ/; Coptic: ⲣⲏ, romanized: Rē) was the ancient Egyptian deity of the sun. By the Fifth Dynasty, in the 25th and 24th centuries BC, he had become one of the most important gods in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the noon-day sun. Ra was believed to rule in all parts of the created world: the sky, the Earth, and the underworld. He was the god of the sun, order, kings and the sky.
According to scholar Richard H. Wilkinson, Ra is “arguably Egypt’s most important deity” not only because of his association with the life-giving sun but also through his influence on the development of later gods (205).
Ra also had a significant role in the underworld and judgment.
In the New Kingdom work known as the Book of the Dead, the soul must stand in judgment before Osiris who weighs the soul’s heart against the white feather of truth (the feather of Ma’at, goddess of harmony and balance) and, if the scales remain even, the soul is allowed to proceed on (after Osiris confers with the Forty-Two Judges and other gods); if the heart is heavier than the feather, the soul would cease to exist. Ra was considered present at the judgement in his form as Ra-Osiris or invisibly as inspiration for Osiris’ just decision.
Darkness was all over Egypt except for the children of Israel.
Exod 10:23 (KJV)
23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.
God hardened Pharaoh’s heart after this plague.
Exod 10:27 (KJV)
27 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.
Tenth plague – Death of firstborn
Exod 11:5 (NIV)
5 Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn son of the female slave, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well.
This was an attack on Pharaoh himself.
Exod 4:23 (NIV)
Then say to Pharaoh, ‘This is what the LORD says: Israel is my firstborn son,
23 and I told you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” But you refused to let him go; so I will kill your firstborn son.’ ”
Pharaoh was considered to be god on earth.
“As supreme ruler of the people, the pharaoh was considered a god on earth, the intermediary between the gods and the people.”
Death of the Pharaoh’s Firstborn Son (Lawrence Alma-Tadema)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File … rn_son.jpg
It was also an attack on his lineage of rule.
“The Egyptians also attached significance to primogeniture and birthright. The death of Pharaoh and the Egyptians’ firstborn sons at the first Passover is direct recompense for God’s identification of Israel as his own firstborn.”
The only ones that would be spared would be the households with blood on their doorposts.
Exod 12:7 (KJV)
7 And they shall take of the blood, and strike [it] on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, wherein they shall eat it.
It was the start of the institution of the Passover.
Exod 12:14 (KJV)
14 And this day shall be unto you for a memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the LORD throughout your generations; ye shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever.
And the Jews have been commemorating this event ever since.
Passover, also called Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪ-/; Biblical Hebrew: חַג הַפֶּסַח, romanized: Ḥag hapPesaḥ), is a major Jewish holiday that celebrates the exodus of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt
the Passover Seder is one of the most widely observed rituals in Judaism.